bake - May 2018 - 12

technical corner

As the process of changing ingredients and formulations is time-

Comparative testing of PHO donut shortening with high oleic

consuming and often complicated, most US bakers have already

soybean shortening and other alternative shortenings to

made the switch away from partially hydrogenated oil (PHO)

produce both cake and yeast-raised donuts showed that high

shortenings, according to Frank Flider, QUALISOY consultant.

oleic soybean shortening performed virtually identically to

Since the time that the Food and Drug Administration first re-

PHO shortening and was superior to other common alterna-

quired labeling of trans fats and announced the efforts to phase

tives such as palm-soy oil blends and commodity soybean oil

out PHOs, bakers have been in the process of conversion.

shortenings, Flider says.

"Throughout that time, we've experienced quite an evolution

"Testing was quite rigorous and included the evaluation of

of PHO alternatives from simple blends and first-generation

texture, color, flavor, shelf-life, oil weeping, height, width, oil

interesterified shortenings to more sophisticated and functional

absorption and retention of toppings such as icings and pow-

products like enzymatically interesterified high oleic soybean

dered sugar," he says. "Additionally, the size and dimensions of

shortenings," says Flider, who brings more than 40 years of

the 'star' typical of cake donuts was virtually identical to that ob-

technical, managerial and marketing experience in the oilseed

served in PHO-produced cake donuts. These tests demonstrated

and agricultural biotech industries to QUALISOY. "All bakers,

that high oleic soybean shortening is a direct substitute for PHO

particularly early adopters of non-PHO alternatives, may con-

shortening and requires no formulation changes for its use."

sider evaluating their current shortening to make sure that it is
performing at the level and providing the quality they desire."

Donuts fried in a typical commercial blend of palm and soybean oil tended to be waxier than high oleic shortenings, slight-

The interesterification process is very flexible and producers

ly tougher to the bite and had detectable flavor notes, Flider

can tailor high oleic soybean shortenings to virtually any speci-

says. The donuts tended to weep more, the internal star was

fication desired, Flider explains. These shortenings, produced

misshapen and the cell structure was not as consistent. The

with high oleic soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean

commodity soybean oil shortening was a bit oilier and tended

oil, can have varied proportions based on achieving desired

to weep more than the high oleic soybean shortening.

specifications and performance levels to assure optimum performance.

"Overall, the performance of the high oleic soybean shortenshortening," Flider says. "Comparatively speaking, there are no

closely mimics the performance of trans-fatty acids in terms of

special tips or procedures needed when substituting high oleic

melting characteristics, and because the level of polyunsatu-

soybean shortening for PHOs - it is a true drop-in substitute.

rates is low, high oleic soybean shortenings have excellent shelf

As is the case for any frying shortening, it's important to closely

and oxidative stability. High oleic soybean shortenings can offer

monitor and maintain the temperatures of the shortening dur-

bakers improved texture, color, flavor, shelf-life and other desir-

ing frying, assuring that levels are adequate to avoid greasiness

able characteristics.

and excess absorption."

12 < MAY 2018 |


ing most closely matched the performance of the PHO donut
The combination of oleic acid and stearic acid in the shortening

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of bake - May 2018