bake - May 2018 - 12
As the process of changing ingredients and formulations is time-
Comparative testing of PHO donut shortening with high oleic
consuming and often complicated, most US bakers have already
soybean shortening and other alternative shortenings to
made the switch away from partially hydrogenated oil (PHO)
produce both cake and yeast-raised donuts showed that high
shortenings, according to Frank Flider, QUALISOY consultant.
oleic soybean shortening performed virtually identically to
Since the time that the Food and Drug Administration ﬁrst re-
PHO shortening and was superior to other common alterna-
quired labeling of trans fats and announced the efforts to phase
tives such as palm-soy oil blends and commodity soybean oil
out PHOs, bakers have been in the process of conversion.
shortenings, Flider says.
"Throughout that time, we've experienced quite an evolution
"Testing was quite rigorous and included the evaluation of
of PHO alternatives from simple blends and ﬁrst-generation
texture, color, ﬂavor, shelf-life, oil weeping, height, width, oil
interesteriﬁed shortenings to more sophisticated and functional
absorption and retention of toppings such as icings and pow-
products like enzymatically interesteriﬁed high oleic soybean
dered sugar," he says. "Additionally, the size and dimensions of
shortenings," says Flider, who brings more than 40 years of
the 'star' typical of cake donuts was virtually identical to that ob-
technical, managerial and marketing experience in the oilseed
served in PHO-produced cake donuts. These tests demonstrated
and agricultural biotech industries to QUALISOY. "All bakers,
that high oleic soybean shortening is a direct substitute for PHO
particularly early adopters of non-PHO alternatives, may con-
shortening and requires no formulation changes for its use."
sider evaluating their current shortening to make sure that it is
performing at the level and providing the quality they desire."
Donuts fried in a typical commercial blend of palm and soybean oil tended to be waxier than high oleic shortenings, slight-
The interesteriﬁcation process is very ﬂexible and producers
ly tougher to the bite and had detectable ﬂavor notes, Flider
can tailor high oleic soybean shortenings to virtually any speci-
says. The donuts tended to weep more, the internal star was
ﬁcation desired, Flider explains. These shortenings, produced
misshapen and the cell structure was not as consistent. The
with high oleic soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean
commodity soybean oil shortening was a bit oilier and tended
oil, can have varied proportions based on achieving desired
to weep more than the high oleic soybean shortening.
speciﬁcations and performance levels to assure optimum performance.
"Overall, the performance of the high oleic soybean shortenshortening," Flider says. "Comparatively speaking, there are no
closely mimics the performance of trans-fatty acids in terms of
special tips or procedures needed when substituting high oleic
melting characteristics, and because the level of polyunsatu-
soybean shortening for PHOs - it is a true drop-in substitute.
rates is low, high oleic soybean shortenings have excellent shelf
As is the case for any frying shortening, it's important to closely
and oxidative stability. High oleic soybean shortenings can offer
monitor and maintain the temperatures of the shortening dur-
bakers improved texture, color, ﬂavor, shelf-life and other desir-
ing frying, assuring that levels are adequate to avoid greasiness
and excess absorption."
12 < MAY 2018 | bakemag.com
ing most closely matched the performance of the PHO donut
The combination of oleic acid and stearic acid in the shortening